Monday, December 28, 2009

Social Networks in South Korean Society Resumed by : Yutsa Z. Ula

Cultural capital represents the collection of non-economic forces such as family background, social class, varying investments in and commitments to education, different resources, etc. which influence academic success. Bourdieu distinguishes three forms of cultural capital. The embodied state, objectified state and cultural capital institutionalized state.
The embodied state: it becomes integrated into the individual and can be increased by investing time into self improvement, so that it cannot transmitted instantaneously.
Objectified state: represented by cultural goods which can be appropriated both materially with economic capital and symbolically via embodied capital.
Institutionalized state: provides academic credentials which create a certificate of cultural competence which confers on its holder a conventional, constant, legally guaranteed value with respect of power.
Social Capital has an ability to use social networks largely based on individual’s economic and cultural capital which has its own importance for achieving a social status. Further more, it’s about possession of a durable network of more or less mutual acquaintance and recognition.
The theory of social resources begins with an image of the macro-social structure consisting of positions ranked according to certain normatively valued resources such as wealth, status and power.
Social network in S. Korea
The word network in Korean language corresponds to two different meaning. Yonkyol and yonjul. Yonkyol is a neutral word, meaning the open relations among objects or people connected by universal rule. Yonjul means particularistic relations maintained by kin, school and regional ties.
Well-known Yonjuls are “SNU Republic” and “TK (Taegu-Kyeongsang Province) mafia”. Yonjuls are often analysed as a form of “class alienation” and also institutionalised corruption. As yonjul really has a strong control in Korean society, a person without a right class background has very poor prospects of social advancements.
The strength of Yonjul even reflected on a open recruitment for new employees in companies or corporation. The applicant are required to submit a list of their acquaintance and relatives who are prominent either in politics or government. It can be an efficient alternative in either market or hierarchy in economic transaction, but become barrier to those who do not share the link.
Typical Korean Social Network:
1. Social network Function as an important mode of social exchange.
2. Social Network in Korea shows high homophile, or very homogenous association within the line of sex, age and region.
3. Social network functions as a reference group so that it assert an enormous influence on individual’s value and attitude.
4. Those who have wider range of network tend to have less authoritarian attitude.


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