Monday, December 28, 2009

about values and Culture (yutsa Z.Ula)

Type              : Summary

This chapter deals with mental program in people in general, value and culture in particular. Mental programs are physically are determined by states of our brain cells. Therefore, mental programming is partly unique and partly shared with others. Mental programs its elves distinguished to three levels, individual, collective and universal. The last one is the least unique but the most basic because shared with almost all mankind. Four strategies for operating construct about human mental programs is available. We can only observe behaviour, deeds and word. Through observing behaviour we can infer the stable mental program’s presence. Although in social scinces this type inference is not unique, but it does exist.
            Deeds and words can be observed with two different ways, provoked and natural. Naturally word can be inferred from content analysis, speeches, discussion and document, deeds on the other hand can be inferred from the observation, use of available and descriptive  statistic. By provoked system, interview, questionnaires and projective test are the classic way but the trusted one. Deeds can be inferred from laboratory, experiments and field experiments.
            Values are classified into values as desired and values as desirable. Culture a word that set aside for describing entire societies is defined as collective programming of the mind.
            Values have both intensity and direction. Mathematically values can be symbolized with line or direction arrows. It revolves on two contrary word, such as good and bad. Values as desired is about what people actually desired, while values as desirable is what they think ought to be desired. Both of them can not stand independently, but they should not be equated.
            Culture can be defined in many ways. Culture a word that set aside for describing entire societies is defined as collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another. Culture includes system of values, and values is among the building block of culture. Kluckhohn said that culture consists in patterned way of thinking, feeling and reacting.
            Comparing culture chapter clarifies the ways to compare culture, changing the level of analysis, ethnocentrism, the need for multidisciplinary approaches, and matching samples. These ways commonly used in cross-culture studies to compare one citizen to another.


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